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Binary options

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How to trade:

Choose an asset and expiration time

Specify the investment amount

Choose the direction of the price movement (CALL — Up, Put — Down)

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Three trading platforms

How it works

Binary Options is a financial instrument used to make profit by predicting an asset’s price movement (currencies, shares, commodities). In order to receive profit, a trader makes a prediction regarding the direction of the underlying asset’s price movement. If the prediction is correct, the trader receives profit. If it is not, the trader takes losses. Traders can also close the trade early if they realize that the prediction is not correct. In this case, a part of the contract cost is refunded.

Purchase a CALL option if you think that the price of the chosen asset will be higher than at the moment of its expiration time.​

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  • If your prediction is correct, you will receive profit.
  • If the price remains the same, you don’t take losses and don’t receive any profit.
  • If the current price is lower than the price at the moment the option was bought, you take losses.

GRANT

Use the GRANT statement to grant:

System privileges to users and roles.

Roles to users and roles. Both privileges and roles are either local, global, or external. Table 18-1 lists the system privileges (organized by the database object operated upon). Table 18-2 lists Oracle Database predefined roles.

Object privileges for a particular object to users, roles, and PUBLIC . Table 18-3 summarizes the object privileges that you can grant on each type of object. Table 18-4 lists object privileges and the operations that they authorize.

Notes on Authorizing Database Users You can authorize database users through means other than the database and the GRANT statement.

Many Oracle Database privileges are granted through supplied PL/SQL and Java packages. For information on those privileges, please refer to the documentation for the appropriate package.

Some operating systems have facilities that let you grant roles to Oracle Database users with the initialization parameter OS_ROLES . If you choose to grant roles to users through operating system facilities, then you cannot also grant roles to users with the GRANT statement, although you can use the GRANT statement to grant system privileges to users and system privileges and roles to other roles.

CREATE USER and CREATE ROLE for definitions of local, global, and external privileges

Oracle Database Security Guide for information about other authorization methods and for information about privileges

REVOKE for information on revoking grants

To grant a system privilege, you must either have been granted the system privilege with the ADMIN OPTION or have been granted the GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE system privilege.

To grant a role, you must either have been granted the role with the ADMIN OPTION or have been granted the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege, or you must have created the role.

To grant an object privilege, you must own the object, or the owner of the object must have granted you the object privileges with the GRANT OPTION , or you must have been granted the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE system privilege. If you have the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE , then you can grant the object privilege only if the object owner could have granted the same object privilege. In this case, the GRANTOR column of the DBA_TAB_PRIVS view displays the object owner rather than the user who issued the GRANT statement.

Use these clauses to grant system privileges.

Specify the system privilege you want to grant. Table 18-1 lists the system privileges, organized by the database object operated upon.

If you grant a privilege to a user , then the database adds the privilege to the user’s privilege domain. The user can immediately exercise the privilege.

If you grant a privilege to a role , then the database adds the privilege to the privilege domain of the role. Users who have been granted and have enabled the role can immediately exercise the privilege. Other users who have been granted the role can enable the role and exercise the privilege.

If you grant a privilege to PUBLIC , then the database adds the privilege to the privilege domains of each user. All users can immediately perform operations authorized by the privilege.

Oracle Database provides the ALL PRIVILEGES shortcut for granting all the system privileges listed in Table 18-1, except the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege.

Specify the role you want to grant. You can grant an Oracle Database predefined role or a user-defined role. Table 18-2 lists the predefined roles.

If you grant a role to a user , then the database makes the role available to the user. The user can immediately enable the role and exercise the privileges in the privilege domain of the role.

If you grant a role to another role , then the database adds the privilege domain of the granted role to the privilege domain of the grantee role. Users who have been granted the grantee role can enable it and exercise the privileges in the granted role’s privilege domain.

If you grant a role to PUBLIC , then the database makes the role available to all users. All users can immediately enable the role and exercise the privileges in the privilege domain of the role.

«Granting a Role to a Role: Example» and CREATE ROLE for information on creating a user-defined role

IDENTIFIED BY Clause

Use the IDENTIFIED BY clause to specifically identify an existing user by password or to create a nonexistent user. This clause is not valid if the grantee is a role or PUBLIC . If the user specified in the grantee_clause does not exist, then the database creates the user with the password and with the privileges and roles specified in this clause.

CREATE USER for restrictions on usernames and passwords

WITH ADMIN OPTION

Specify WITH ADMIN OPTION to enable the grantee to:

Grant the role to another user or role, unless the role is a GLOBAL role

Revoke the role from another user or role

Alter the role to change the authorization needed to access it

If you grant a system privilege or role to a user without specifying WITH ADMIN OPTION , and then subsequently grant the privilege or role to the user WITH ADMIN OPTION , then the user has the ADMIN OPTION on the privilege or role.

To revoke the ADMIN OPTION on a system privilege or role from a user, you must revoke the privilege or role from the user altogether and then grant the privilege or role to the user without the ADMIN OPTION .

TO grantee_clause identifies users or roles to which the system privilege, role, or object privilege is granted.

Restriction on Grantees A user, role, or PUBLIC cannot appear more than once in TO grantee_clause.

PUBLIC Specify PUBLIC to grant the privileges to all users.

Restrictions on Granting System Privileges and Roles Privileges and roles are subject to the following restrictions:

A privilege or role cannot appear more than once in the list of privileges and roles to be granted.

You cannot grant a role to itself.

You cannot grant a role IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY to anything.

You cannot grant a role IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY to a global user or global role.

You cannot grant roles circularly. For example, if you grant the role banker to the role teller , then you cannot subsequently grant teller to banker .

Use these clauses to grant object privileges.

Specify the object privilege you want to grant. You can specify any of the values shown in Table 18-3. See also Table 18-4.

Restriction on Object Privileges A privilege cannot appear more than once in the list of privileges to be granted.

Specify ALL to grant all the privileges for the object that you have been granted with the GRANT OPTION . The user who owns the schema containing an object automatically has all privileges on the object with the GRANT OPTION . The keyword PRIVILEGES is provided for semantic clarity and is optional.

Specify the table or view column on which privileges are to be granted. You can specify columns only when granting the INSERT , REFERENCES , or UPDATE privilege. If you do not list columns, then the grantee has the specified privilege on all columns in the table or view.

For information on existing column object grants, query the USER_ , ALL_ , or DBA_COL_PRIVS data dictionary view.

The on_object_clause identifies the object on which the privileges are granted. Directory schema objects and Java source and resource schema objects are identified separately because they reside in separate namespaces.

If you can make this grant only because you have the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE system privilege–that is, you are not the owner of object , nor do you have object_privilege on object WITH GRANT OPTION –then the effect of this grant is that you are acting on behalf of the object owner. The *_TAB_PRIVS data dictionary views will reflect that this grant was made by the owner of object .

«Revoke Operations that Use GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE: Example» for more information on using the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE system privilege for revoke operations

WITH GRANT OPTION

Specify WITH GRANT OPTION to enable the grantee to grant the object privileges to other users and roles.

Restriction on Granting WITH GRANT OPTION You can specify WITH GRANT OPTION only when granting to a user or to PUBLIC , not when granting to a role.

WITH HIERARCHY OPTION

Specify WITH HIERARCHY OPTION to grant the specified object privilege on all subobjects of object , such as subviews created under a view, including subobjects created subsequent to this statement.

This clause is meaningful only in combination with the SELECT object privilege.

object Specify the schema object on which the privileges are to be granted. If you do not qualify object with schema , then the database assumes the object is in your own schema. The object can be one of the following types:

Table, view, or materialized view

Procedure, function, or package

Synonym for any of the preceding items

Directory, library, operator, or indextype

Java source, class, or resource

You cannot grant privileges directly to a single partition of a partitioned table.

DIRECTORY directory_name Specify a directory schema object on which privileges are to be granted. You cannot qualify directory_name with a schema name.

JAVA SOURCE | RESOURCE The JAVA clause lets you specify a Java source or resource schema object on which privileges are to be granted.

Listings of System and Object Privileges

When you grant a privilege on ANY object, such as CREATE ANY CLUSTER , the result is determined by the value of the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY initialization parameter. By default, this parameter is set to FALSE , so that ANY privileges give the grantee access to that type of object in all schemas except the SYS schema. If you set O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY to TRUE , then the ANY privileges also give the grantee access, in the SYS schema, to all objects except Oracle Scheduler objects. For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you use this setting only with great caution.

Table 18-1 System Privileges

Advisor Framework Privileges: All of the advisor framework privileges are part of the DBA role.

Access the advisor framework through PL/SQL packages such as DBMS_ADVISOR and DBMS_SQLTUNE .

Please refer to PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information on these packages.

ADMINISTER SQL TUNING SET

Create, drop, select (read), load (write), and delete a SQL tuning set owned by the grantee through the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

ADMINISTER ANY SQL TUNING SET

Create, drop, select (read), load (write), and delete a SQL tuning set owned by any user through the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

CREATE ANY SQL PROFILE

Accept a SQL Profile recommended by the SQL Tuning Advisor, which is accessed through Enterprise Manager or by the DBMS_SQLTUNE package.

DROP ANY SQL PROFILE

Drop an existing SQL Profile.

ALTER ANY SQL PROFILE

Alter the attributes of an existing SQL Profile.

Create clusters in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY CLUSTER

Create a cluster in any schema. Behaves similarly to CREATE ANY TABLE .

ALTER ANY CLUSTER

Alter clusters in any schema.

DROP ANY CLUSTER

Drop clusters in any schema.

CREATE ANY CONTEXT

Create any context namespace.

DROP ANY CONTEXT

Drop any context namespace.

Alter the database.

Issue ALTER SYSTEM statements.

Issue AUDIT statements.

CREATE DATABASE LINK

Create private database links in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Create public database links.

DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Drop public database links.

DEBUG CONNECT SESSION

Connect the current session to a debugger.

DEBUG ANY PROCEDURE

Debug all PL/SQL and Java code in any database object. Display information on all SQL statements executed by the application.

Note: Granting this privilege is equivalent to granting the DEBUG object privilege on all applicable objects in the database.

Create dimensions in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY DIMENSION

Create dimensions in any schema.

ALTER ANY DIMENSION

Alter dimensions in any schema.

DROP ANY DIMENSION

Drop dimensions in any schema.

CREATE ANY DIRECTORY

Create directory database objects.

DROP ANY DIRECTORY

Drop directory database objects.

Create an indextype in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY INDEXTYPE

Create an indextype in any schema and create a comment on an indextype in any schema.

ALTER ANY INDEXTYPE

Modify indextypes in any schema.

DROP ANY INDEXTYPE

Drop an indextype in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY INDEXTYPE

Reference an indextype in any schema.

CREATE ANY INDEX

Create in any schema a domain index or an index on any table in any schema.

ALTER ANY INDEX

Alter indexes in any schema.

Drop indexes in any schema.

JOB SCHEDULER OBJECTS:

The following privileges are needed to execute procedures in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package.

Create jobs, schedules, or programs in the grantee’s schema.

Create, alter, or drop jobs, schedules, or programs in any schema.

Note: This extremely powerful privilege allows the grantee to execute code as any other user. It should be granted with caution.

CREATE EXTERNAL JOB

Create in the grantee’s schema an executable scheduler job that runs on the operating system.

EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM

Use any program in a job in the grantee’s schema.

EXECUTE ANY CLASS

Specify any job class in a job in the grantee’s schema.

Create, alter, or drop any job class, window, or window group.

Create external procedure or function libraries in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY LIBRARY

Create external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

DROP ANY LIBRARY

Drop external procedure or function libraries in any schema.

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW

Create a materialized view in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Create materialized views in any schema.

ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Alter materialized views in any schema.

DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW

Drop materialized views in any schema.

This privilege has been deprecated. No privileges are needed for a user to enable rewrite for a materialized view that references tables or views in the user’s own schema.

GLOBAL QUERY REWRITE

Enable rewrite using a materialized view when that materialized view references tables or views in any schema.

ON COMMIT REFRESH

Create a refresh-on-commit materialized view on any table in the database.

Alter a refresh-on-demand materialized on any table in the database to refresh-on-commit.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

Create an operator and its bindings in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY OPERATOR

Create an operator and its bindings in any schema and create a comment on an operator in any schema.

ALTER ANY OPERATOR

Modify an operator in any schema.

DROP ANY OPERATOR

Drop an operator in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY OPERATOR

Reference an operator in any schema.

CREATE ANY OUTLINE

Create public outlines that can be used in any schema that uses outlines.

ALTER ANY OUTLINE

DROP ANY OUTLINE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY PROCEDURE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in any schema.

ALTER ANY PROCEDURE

Alter stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema.

DROP ANY PROCEDURE

Drop stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY PROCEDURE

Execute procedures or functions, either standalone or packaged.

Reference public package variables in any schema.

Alter any role in the database.

Grant any role in the database.

CREATE ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Create rollback segments.

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Alter rollback segments.

DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Drop rollback segments.

Create sequences in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY SEQUENCE

Create sequences in any schema.

ALTER ANY SEQUENCE

Alter any sequence in the database.

DROP ANY SEQUENCE

Drop sequences in any schema.

SELECT ANY SEQUENCE

Reference sequences in any schema.

Connect to the database.

ALTER RESOURCE COST

Set costs for session resources.

Issue ALTER SESSION statements.

Logon after the instance is started using the SQL*Plus STARTUP RESTRICT statement.

See MATERIALIZED VIEWS

Create synonyms in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY SYNONYM

Create private synonyms in any schema.

CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM

Create public synonyms.

DROP ANY SYNONYM

Drop private synonyms in any schema.

DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM

Drop public synonyms.

Note: For external tables, the only valid privileges are CREATE ANY TABLE , ALTER ANY TABLE , DROP ANY TABLE , and SELECT ANY TABLE .

Create tables in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY TABLE

Create tables in any schema. The owner of the schema containing the table must have space quota on the tablespace to contain the table.

ALTER ANY TABLE

Alter any table or view in any schema.

BACKUP ANY TABLE

Use the Export utility to incrementally export objects from the schema of other users.

DELETE ANY TABLE

Delete rows from tables, table partitions, or views in any schema.

Drop or truncate tables or table partitions in any schema.

INSERT ANY TABLE

Insert rows into tables and views in any schema.

Lock tables and views in any schema.

SELECT ANY TABLE

Query tables, views, or materialized views in any schema.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

UPDATE ANY TABLE

Update rows in tables and views in any schema.

Take tablespaces offline and online and begin and end tablespace backups.

Use an unlimited amount of any tablespace. This privilege overrides any specific quotas assigned. If you revoke this privilege from a user, then the user’s schema objects remain but further tablespace allocation is denied unless authorized by specific tablespace quotas. You cannot grant this system privilege to roles.

Create a database trigger in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY TRIGGER

Create database triggers in any schema.

ALTER ANY TRIGGER

Enable, disable, or compile database triggers in any schema.

DROP ANY TRIGGER

Drop database triggers in any schema.

ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER

Create a trigger on DATABASE . You must also have the CREATE TRIGGER or CREATE ANY TRIGGER system privilege.

Create object types and object type bodies in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY TYPE

Create object types and object type bodies in any schema.

Alter object types in any schema.

Drop object types and object type bodies in any schema.

EXECUTE ANY TYPE

Use and reference object types and collection types in any schema, and invoke methods of an object type in any schema if you make the grant to a specific user. If you grant EXECUTE ANY TYPE to a role, then users holding the enabled role will not be able to invoke methods of an object type in any schema.

Create subtypes under any nonfinal object types.

Create users. This privilege also allows the creator to:

Assign quotas on any tablespace.

Set default and temporary tablespaces.

Assign a profile as part of a CREATE USER statement.

Alter any user. This privilege authorizes the grantee to:

Change another user’s password or authentication method.

Assign quotas on any tablespace.

Set default and temporary tablespaces.

Assign a profile and default roles.

Create views in the grantee’s schema.

CREATE ANY VIEW

Create views in any schema.

Drop views in any schema.

Create subviews under any object views.

FLASHBACK ANY TABLE

Issue a SQL Flashback Query on any table, view, or materialized view in any schema. This privilege is not needed to execute the DBMS_FLASHBACK procedures.

If a user has been granted the MERGE ANY VIEW privilege, then for any query issued by that user, the optimizer can use view merging to improve query performance without performing the checks that would otherwise be performed to ensure that view merging does not violate any security intentions of the view creator. See also Oracle Database Reference for information on the OPTIMIZER_SECURE_VIEW_MERGING parameter and Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information on view merging.

Analyze any table, cluster, or index in any schema.

Audit any object in any schema using AUDIT schema_objects statements.

Create a registration on queries and receive database change notifications in response to DML or DDL changes to the objects associated with the registered queries. Please refer to Oracle Database Application Developer’s Guide – Fundamentals for more information on database change notification.

COMMENT ANY TABLE

Comment on any table, view, or column in any schema.

EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY

Bypass fine-grained access control.

Caution: This is a very powerful system privilege, as it lets the grantee bypass application-driven security policies. Database administrators should use caution when granting this privilege.

FORCE ANY TRANSACTION

Force the commit or rollback of any in-doubt distributed transaction in the local database.

Induce the failure of a distributed transaction.

Force the commit or rollback of the grantee’s in-doubt distributed transactions in the local database.

GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE

Grant any object privilege that the object owner is permitted to to grant.

Revoke any object privilege that was granted by the object owner or by some other user with the GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE privilege.

GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE

Grant any system privilege.

Enable resumable space allocation.

SELECT ANY DICTIONARY

Query any data dictionary object in the SYS schema. This privilege lets you selectively override the default FALSE setting of the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY initialization parameter.

SELECT ANY TRANSACTION

Query the contents of the FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY view.

Caution: This is a very powerful system privilege, as it lets the grantee view all data in the database, including past data. This privilege should be granted only to users who need to use the Oracle Flashback Transaction Query feature.

Perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations.

ALTER DATABASE : open, mount, back up, or change character set.

ARCHIVELOG and RECOVERY .

Includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

Perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations.

ALTER DATABASE : open, mount, or back up.

ARCHIVELOG and RECOVERY .

Includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

CONNECT, RESOURCE, and DBA

These roles are provided for compatibility with previous versions of Oracle Database. You can determine the privileges encompassed by these roles by querying the DBA_SYS_PRIVS data dictionary view.

Note: Oracle recommends that you design your own roles for database security rather than relying on these roles. These roles may not be created automatically by future versions of Oracle Database.

See Also: Oracle Database Reference for a description of the DBA_SYS_PRIVS view

DELETE_CATALOG_ROLE EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE

These roles are provided for accessing data dictionary views and packages.

See Also: Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more information on these roles

These roles are provided for convenience in using the import and export utilities.

See Also: Oracle Database Utilities for more information on these roles

You need these roles to use Oracle Advanced Queuing.

This role is used by the Enterprise Manager Intelligent Agent.

You need this role to create a user who owns a recovery catalog.

See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User’s Guide for more information on recovery catalogs

Table 18-2 Oracle Database Predefined Roles

System Privilege Name Operations Authorized

A DBA using Oracle Database heterogeneous services needs this role to access appropriate tables in the data dictionary.

This role allows the grantee to execute the procedures of the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. It includes all of the job scheduler system privileges and is included in the DBA role.

See Also: Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more information on the DBMS_SCHEDULER package

Table 18-3 Object Privileges Available for Particular Objects

Predefined Role Purpose

ON COMMIT REFRESH

Note 1: Oracle Database treats a Java class, source, or resource as if it were a procedure for purposes of granting object privileges.

Note 2: Job scheduler objects are created using the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. After these objects are created, you can grant the EXECUTE object privilege on job scheduler classes and programs. You can grant ALTER privilege on job scheduler jobs, programs, and schedules.

Note 3: The DELETE , INSERT , and UPDATE privileges can be granted only to updatable materialized views.

Table 18-4 Object Privileges and the Operations They Authorize

Object Privilege Table View Sequence Procedure, Function, Package (Note 1) Material-ized View Directory Library User- defined Type Operator Indextype

The following table privileges authorize operations on a table. Any one of following object privileges allows the grantee to lock the table in any lock mode with the LOCK TABLE statement.

Note: For external tables, the only valid object privileges are ALTER and SELECT .

Change the table definition with the ALTER TABLE statement.

Remove rows from the table with the DELETE statement.

Note: You must grant the SELECT privilege on the table along with the DELETE privilege if the table is on a remote database.

Access, through a debugger:

PL/SQL code in the body of any triggers defined on the table

Information on SQL statements that reference the table directly

Create an index on the table with the CREATE INDEX statement.

Add new rows to the table with the INSERT statement.

Create a constraint that refers to the table. You cannot grant this privilege to a role.

Query the table with the SELECT statement.

Change data in the table with the UPDATE statement.

Note: You must grant the SELECT privilege on the table along with the UPDATE privilege if the table is on a remote database.

The following view privileges authorize operations on a view. Any one of the following object privileges allows the grantee to lock the view in any lock mode with the LOCK TABLE statement.

To grant a privilege on a view, you must have that privilege with the GRANT OPTION on all of the base tables of the view.

Access, through a debugger:

PL/SQL code in the body of any triggers defined on the view

Information on SQL statements that reference the view directly

Remove rows from the view with the DELETE statement.

Add new rows to the view with the INSERT statement.

Define foreign key constraints on the view.

Query the view with the SELECT statement.

Create a subview under this view. You can grant this object privilege only if you have the UNDER ANY VIEW privilege WITH GRANT OPTION on the immediate superview of this view.

Change data in the view with the UPDATE statement.

The following sequence privileges authorize operations on a sequence.

Change the sequence definition with the ALTER SEQUENCE statement.

Examine and increment values of the sequence with the CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns.

PROCEDURE, FUNCTION, PACKAGE PRIVILEGES

The following procedure, function, and package privileges authorize operations on procedures, functions, and packages. These privileges also apply to Java sources, classes, and resources , which Oracle Database treats as though they were procedures for purposes of granting object privileges.

Access, through a debugger, all public and nonpublic variables, methods, and types defined on the object.

Place a breakpoint or stop at a line or instruction boundary within the procedure, function, or package. This privilege grants access to the declarations in the method or package specification and body.

Execute the procedure or function directly, or access any program object declared in the specification of a package, or compile the object implicitly during a call to a currently invalid or uncompiled function or procedure. This privilege does not allow the grantee to explicitly compile using ALTER PROCEDURE or ALTER FUNCTION . For explicit compilation you need the appropriate ALTER system privilege.

Access, through a debugger, public variables, types, and methods defined on the procedure, function, or package. This privilege grants access to the declarations in the method or package specification only.

Note: Users do not need this privilege to execute a procedure, function, or package indirectly.

MATERIALIZED VIEW PRIVILEGES

The following materialized view privileges authorize operations on a materialized view.

ON COMMIT REFRESH

Create a refresh-on-commit materialized view on the specified table.

Create a materialized view for query rewrite using the specified table.

Query the materialized view with the SELECT statement.

Synonym privileges are the same as the privileges for the base object. Granting a privilege on a synonym is equivalent to granting the privilege on the base object. Similarly, granting a privilege on a base object is equivalent to granting the privilege on all synonyms for the object. If you grant to a user a privilege on a synonym, then the user can use either the synonym name or the base object name in the SQL statement that exercises the privilege.

The following directory privileges provide secured access to the files stored in the operating system directory to which the directory object serves as a pointer. The directory object contains the full path name of the operating system directory where the files reside. Because the files are actually stored outside the database, Oracle Database server processes also need to have appropriate file permissions on the file system server. Granting object privileges on the directory database object to individual database users, rather than on the operating system, allows the database to enforce security during file operations.

Read files in the directory.

Write files in the directory. This privilege is useful only in connection with external tables. It allows the grantee to determine whether the external table agent can write a log file or a bad file to the directory.

Restriction: This privilege does not allow the grantee to write to a BFILE .

The following library privilege authorizes operations on a library.

Use and reference the specified object and invoke its methods.

OBJECT TYPE PRIVILEGES

The following object type privileges authorize operations on a database object type.

Access, through a debugger, all public and nonpublic variables, methods, and types defined on the object type.

Place a breakpoint or stop at a line or instruction boundary within the type body.

Use and reference the specified object and invoke its methods.

Access, through a debugger, public variables, types, and methods defined on the object type.

Create a subtype under this type. You can grant this object privilege only if you have the UNDER ANY TYPE privilege WITH GRANT OPTION on the immediate supertype of this type.

The following indextype privilege authorizes operations on indextypes.

Reference an indextype.

The following operator privilege authorizes operations on user-defined operators.

Reference an operator.

Granting a System Privilege to a User: Example To grant the CREATE SESSION system privilege to the sample user hr , allowing hr to log on to Oracle Database, issue the following statement:

Granting System Privileges to a Role: Example The following statement grants appropriate system privileges to a data warehouse manager role, which was created in the «Creating a Role: Example»:

The dw_manager privilege domain now contains the system privileges related to materialized views.

Granting a Role with the Admin Option: Example To grant the dw_manager role with the ADMIN OPTION to the sample user sh , issue the following statement:

User sh can now perform the following operations with the dw_manager role:

Enable the role and exercise any privileges in the privilege domain of the role, including the CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW system privilege

Grant and revoke the role to and from other users

Granting Object Privileges to a Role: Example The following example grants the SELECT object privileges to a data warehouse user role, which was created in the «Creating a Role: Example»:

Granting a Role to a Role: Example The following statement grants the warehouse_user role to the dw_manager role. Both roles were created in the «Creating a Role: Example»:

The dw_manager role now contains all of the privileges in the domain of the warehouse_user role.

Granting an Object Privilege on a Directory: Example To grant READ on directory bfile_dir to user hr , with the GRANT OPTION , issue the following statement:

Granting Object Privileges on a Table to a User: Example To grant all privileges on the table oe.bonuses , which was created in «Merging into a Table: Example», to the user hr with the GRANT OPTION , issue the following statement:

The user hr can subsequently perform the following operations:

Exercise any privilege on the bonuses table

Grant any privilege on the bonuses table to another user or role

Granting Object Privileges on a View: Example To grant SELECT and UPDATE privileges on the view emp_view , which was created in «Creating a View: Example», to all users, issue the following statement:

All users can subsequently query and update the view of employee details.

Granting Object Privileges to a Sequence in Another Schema: Example To grant SELECT privilege on the customers_seq sequence in the schema oe to the user hr , issue the following statement:

The user hr can subsequently generate the next value of the sequence with the following statement:

Granting Multiple Object Privileges on Individual Columns: Example To grant to user oe the REFERENCES privilege on the employee_id column and the UPDATE privilege on the employee_id , salary , and commission_pct columns of the employees table in the schema hr , issue the following statement:

The user oe can subsequently update values of the employee_id , salary , and commission_pct columns. User oe can also define referential integrity constraints that refer to the employee_id column. However, because the GRANT statement lists only these columns, oe cannot perform operations on any of the other columns of the employees table.

For example, oe can create a table with a constraint:

The constraint in_emp ensures that all dependents in the dependent table correspond to an employee in the employees table in the schema hr .

Grand Option, The : Personal Transformation and a New Creation

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